TEACHER-CENTERED AND STUDENT-CENTERED APPROACHES IN LANGUAGE TEACHING (Essay TEFL)

Introduction
If we observe a person’s ways of learning, it appears that there are variations in the way of learning. There is learning while being in crowded conditions, such as listening to music or watching television. Conversely, there can only be learned if the atmosphere of quiet that the slightest noise becomes a nuisance and interrupted concentration. Some are able to understand material simply by sitting quietly, listening to teacher explaining the material. However, there is a way of learning to read over and over so that there is at home in relatively long read books in Library. Another variation is how to learn any material which is trying to learn, which has implications for the time required for the activity. In fact, there is more to not only record but to scribble notes in such a manner as will want to visualize his understanding. Various studies have been conducted to find out how someone was actually learning.
David A. Kolb, a professor in the field of Organizational Behavior suggests that in fact based on his style of learning, humans can be categorized into 4 types. The fourth type is the activist, pragmatist, reflectors, and theorists. Kolb was inspired by a character in the field of psychology named Kurt Lewin who proposed the concept of ‘adult learning’ or the principles of adult learning is also known as experiential learning or learning from experience. The principle of learning from experience is used to describe the learning process that we experience in everyday life. Illustration of the learning process above, we see that when we experience an event or do certain activities which we then observe and reflect on the event or activity. Both of these processes vicariously on a personal level so that other people do not always know what has been experienced as well as its meaning. After that, in some people among us would probably associate the experience with other experiences, which in the process of learning from experience is said to be abstract conceptualization. Having found a glimmer of a bright spot on the mutual relationship between some experience, some of people between us may make a conclusion about everything that needs to be done to deal with similar incidents in the future (active experimentation), to then try to apply these principles in the face similar events. The above description shows that a variety of learning styles actually have similarities in the process of understanding something. Focused of this essay is to know comparisons and contrast of Teacher-centered learning (TCL) and Student-centered learning (TSL) approach in language teaching.

Comparisons and Contrast between Teaching-Centered and Student-Centered In Learning Teaching.
Teacher-centered learning has the teacher at its centre in an active role and students in a passive, receptive role. Teaching-centered (also called Lecture method of teaching) is one of the most widely used in teaching and learning process. Lecture method is done by way of delivering course materials to students directly or by way of oral. This method is highly practical and efficient for the provision of teaching material and has many learners. Lecture method is the most traditional way of teaching and has long run in the history of education, therefore this method may be regarded as traditional teaching methods since this method first used as a communication tool of teachers in delivering course material. Student-centered learning (or student-centered learning; also called child-centered learning) is an approach to education focusing on the needs of the students, rather than those of others involved in the educational process, such as teachers and administrators. Student-centered learning is focused on the student’s needs, abilities, interests, and learning styles with the teacher as a facilitator of learning. This classroom teaching method acknowledges student voice as central to the learning experience for every learner.
Student-centered learning allows students to actively participate in discovery learning processes from an autonomous viewpoint. Students consume the entire class time constructing a new understanding of the material being learned without being passive, but rather proactive. A variety of hands-on activities are administered in order to promote successful learning. Unique, yet distinctive learning styles are encouraged in a student-centered classroom. With the use of valuable learning skills, students are capable of achieving life-long learning goals, which can further enhance student motivation in the classroom. Because learning can be seen as a form of personal growth, students are encouraged to utilize self-regulation practices in order to reflect on his or her work. For that reason, learning can also be constructive in the sense that the student is in full control of his or her learning. Over the past few decades, a paradigm shift in curriculum has occurred where the teacher acts as a facilitator in a student-centered classroom. Such emphasis on learning has enabled students to take a self-directed alternative to learning. In the teacher-centered classroom, teachers are the primary source for knowledge. Therefore, the focus of learning is to gain information as it is proctored to the student. Also, rote learning or memorization of teacher notes or lectures was the norm a few decades ago. On the other hand, student-centered classrooms are now the norm where active learning is strongly encouraged. Students are now researching material pertinent to the success of their academia and knowledge production is seen as a standard. In order for a teacher to veer towards a student-centered classroom, he or she must become aware of the diverse backgrounds of his or her learners.
One of the most critical differences between student-centered learning and teacher-centered learning is in assessment. In student-centered learning, students participate in the evaluation of their learning. This means that students are involved in deciding how to demonstrate their learning. Developing assessment that supports learning and motivation is essential to the success of student-centered approaches. One of the main reasons teachers’ resist student-centered learning is the view of assessment as problematic in practice. Since teacher-assigned grades are so tightly woven into the fabric of schools, expected by students, parents and administrators alike, allowing students to participate in assessment is somewhat contentious.

Role of Teachers in TCL and SCL Approach
In TCL model, teacher is first resource and centre in an active role and students in a passive, receptive role. Students only get information from only the teacher. The teacher can use this method when they tell students about something and than students retell. It can improve students’ listening and speaking skills. In other hand SCL emphasis on the students switch roles so that teachers should be aware that their role is as a collaborator of the learning process. Teachers act as facilitators who assist students to access all learning resources available. Teachers are not the only source learning for students. Afiatin (2004) is generally stated that Journal of Education, Volume 8, Number 1, March 2007, 1-10 teacher characteristics, among others recognize and appreciate the uniqueness of each student a way to accommodate students’ thinking, learning styles, developmental levels, abilities, talent, self perception, as well as academic and non academic needs of students. Furthermore, teachers who effective learning will begin with the basic assumption that all students willing to learn with the best. The changing role of the teacher becomes the main focus of the facilitator or escort in SCL is not easy. According to Doyle (2006) there are various causes of resistance of teachers, among others: they prefer to be the center of attention; there is a feeling of less significance because just as accompanying students while students who control all learning activities, and teacher assumes that students can not handle the responsibility for their own learning. In reality, many teachers do not know how the new role. To overcome barriers to switching roles, steps should be teachers is to reduce the things that used to do such as: lectures, organize the material lessons, making the example, answering questions, summarize discussions, and solve the problem. In addition, more should be done is to design activities and task, allow students to discover themselves and learn among themselves, and create an atmosphere of active learning in the classroom. In other words, teachers need to repeat the experience their own learning process and put yourself as a student, so students can experience the learning process interesting and fun (Doyle, 2006)

Role of Students in TCL and SCL Approach
Based on Schuman, (1996) Perspective on instruction, students in TCL method is more passive than active. They only imitate knowledge from the teacher within process with critical thinking. In other hand, SCL The main characteristic is that students actively participate in learning activities. Students decide for themselves what will be learned and how to learn it. In activity learning, the teacher invites students to understand that learning is a constructive process; therefore, students should learn something relevant and meaningful for themselves. In addition students are also trying to develop active learning experiences, creating, and build his own knowledge, and relate what is already known with experience gained previously (Afiatin, 2004). In teaching language, teacher can use this method to make students interesting in learning process. Like in reading teaching, teacher make small groups and teacher give one topic to discuss, after that they presentation in front of the class.

Conclusion
Learning system in almost of education especially in Indonesia still one-directional has character, namely lesson giving by teacher. This learning system known as Teacher Centered Learning (TCL) model, that unfortunately make passive student that only listening lecture so his creativity underdeveloped or even uncreative. Therefore, this system must be change with Students Centered Learning (SCL) learning system model. In SCL learning system, student being demanded active doing assignment and discussed with teacher as facilitator. If student active, their creativity will develop and grow. This condition will encourage teacher to advance their knowledge and lesson content, adjusting it with science and technology improvement. In language learning, teacher need model of leaning that interest and active to improve students skills and knowledge.

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