FINAL TASK OF PSICHOLINGUISTICS

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A.                Background

Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language acquisition usually refers to first-language acquisition, which studies infants’ acquisition of their native language. This is distinguished from second-language acquisition, which deals with the acquisition (in both children and adults) of additional languages.

The critical period for language acquisition is the hypothesis that language is acquired best in early childhood and is more difficult to learn at older ages. The idea has been around for a at least 100 years, but Wilder Penfield, a Montreal neurologist, was one of the first scientists to purpose that the superiority for language acquisition shown by young children is due to neuroplasticity (Penfield & Roberts, 1959). Later, Lenneberg (1967), in his revolutionary book. The Biological Foundations of Language, greatly elaborated this proposal by gathering a variety of evidence from studies of brain growth and clinical studies of cases of brain damage, mental retardation, and deafness to support the hypothesis that there are age constraints on language acquisition caused by brain maturation.

Most of the empirical evidence for critical periods in development comes from studies of the visual system in animals rather than from language studies with humans. When mammals are prevented from using their vision in early life, the result is a permanent inability to see. Similar effects have been documented in humans who are born with visual impairments, such as congenital cataracts, that remain uncorrected during childhood. Sacks (1993) describes one such a case, where a grown man was unable to develop functional sight after cataract surgery although he was technically able to see. He was not unable to recognize his dog without touching it, nor was he able to make his way from the front of his house to the back using only his eyes. Because his brain had not received the necessary visual input at just the right moments in development, it had never learned “to see.” This remained true even in adulthood because the critical period for the development of this man’s visual system had passed long ago.

Whether a critical period also guides language acquisition has been more difficult to ascertain. There are no animals models to study and all human babies born with normal situation are immersed in spoken language from the moment they are born. In contrast to the situation for babies who born normally with the situation in their families are radically like in Genie’s case, it makes children have problem in their language acquisition especially in first language.

 B.                 Identification of Problems

Based on background of the study, this paper will explain the following problems:

  1. What is the critical period in first language acquisition?
  2. What the differences critical period between normal children and isolated children (study case: Genie)?

 C.                Limitations of Problems

This paper focused on critical period in first language, it will be explain about the differences critical period between normal children and isolated children, study case in Genie.

 D.                Objectives

The objectives of this paper are:

  1. To know the critical period in first language acquisition
  2. To know the differences critical period between normal children and isolated children (study case: Genie)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER II

FRAME OF THEORIES

 

  1. A.    The Critical Period Hypothesis in First Language Acquisition

Critical Period is a span of time in one’s life within which one must acquire a first language. In general, a critical period is a limited time in which an event can occur, usually to result in some kind of transformation. In developmental psychology and developmental biology, a critical period is a phase in the life span during which an organism has heightened sensitivity to exogenous stimuli that are compulsory for the development of a particular skill. If the organism does not receive the appropriate stimulus during this “critical period”, it may be difficult, ultimately less successful, or even impossible, to develop some functions later in life. The general idea is that failure to learn a particular skill allows the cortical areas normally allocated for that function to fall into disuse; as a result these unused brain areas will eventually adapt to perform a different function and therefore will no longer be available to perform other functions. The concurrence of critical periods for the auditory, visual, and vestibular systems suggests that the time period may be universal for emergent sensory systems.

 According to Lenneberg, 1967, The Critical Period Hypothesis states that the first few years of life constitute the time during which language develops readily and after which (sometime between age 5 and puberty) language acquisition is much more difficult and ultimately less successful. The critical period is thought to end at puberty because of maturational and neurological changes in the brain. Ehrman and oxford (1955) stated, “Younger learners are more likely to attain fluency and native-like pronunciation…”(p. 68)

Penfield and Roberts (1959) and Lenneberg (1967) were the first to propose a critical period for first language acquisition. This hypothesis was based on evidence from (1) feral children and victims of child abuse who were reared without exposure to human language and thus were unable to fully acquire the ability to produce it; (2) deaf children who were unable to develop spoken language after puberty; (3) evidence that children with aphasia have a better chance at recovery than aphasiac adults. The critical hypothesis, Lenneberg (1967) states that the early-to-mid childhood (age 5 to puberty) constitutes the time during which language develops readily and after which language acquisition is much more difficult and ultimately less successful.

The Critical Period Hypothesis was developed further by Pinker (1994), who proposed that language acquisition is guaranteed during childhood, progressively jeopardized until puberty ends, and is improbable thereafter. According to Pinker, physiological changes in the brain are conceivable causes of the terminus of the critical period for language acquisition. Pinker further supported Lenneberg statement about critical period, he commented that “Maturation changes in the brain, such as the decline in metabolic rate and number of neurons during the early school-age years, and the bottoming out of the number of synapses and metabolic rate around puberty, are plausible causes” (p. 298).

Besides that, based on the analysis conducted by the innateness hypothesis of Lenneberg, 1967, and Chomsky, 1970, “all normal children acquire native language of origin will be” introduced “to the language or their mother don’t removed and excluded from their mothers’ life”.

 

B. The Theories of Language Acquisition

There are three theories of language acquisition:

  1. Imitation Theory

Children hear speech around them and copy it. When a child is raised in a English speaking environment they acquire English.  Although, have mistakes such as over-generalization “goed” and “bes” are predictable and consistent.

 

 

  1. Reinforcement Theory

The way in which adults coach children when using language by praise and by correcting the children.  Parents may sometimes correct the truth of the statement rather than the form. The children’s mistakes are often rule governed (by perhaps always adding the suffix -ed to form past tense).

  1. Active Construction of a Grammar Theory

Rules are hypothesized by the linguistic inputs recognized by children acquiring language. As children continuously receive language input their language is revised to more and more become a model of adult grammar. This accounts for the fact that children can create novel sentences unlike those heard from adults.

 

C. Isolated Children

An Isolated Child is a child who was raised with very little social contact. Often these children were locked up by their parents, in certain rooms or in closets. Once returned to a normal human life they show limited social skills, ability to learn language, and are often considered to be moderately retarded. They never reach a normal human state of life, and often die fairly young.

Isolated child is case of children who have been kept in confinement or isolation by their parents or others, and consequently were not exposed to language. But there are also a great number of children who have been cared for by loving parents, but who, because of a physical disability such as deafness and blindness, have nonetheless been isolated from language. Studying such cases might provide us with insight into certain psycholinguistics questions in much the someway as does the study of children who have grown up in the isolation.

According to David (1984) he said that “here, then, was a human organism which had missed nearly six years of socialization. Her condition shows how little her purely biological resources, when acting alone, could contribute to making her a complete person”. Golfarb (1945), for example, compared forty children who had been placed in foster home soon after birth with forty children who had spent the first two years of their lives in institutions before being transferred to foster homes. He found that the institutionalized children suffered a number of personality defects that persisted even after they had left the institution. They had lower IQ scores, seemed more aggressive and distractible, showed less initiative, and were emotionally cold. Many other studies had reported similar depressing effects on physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development, and have confirmed that such disabilities suffered in early childhood tend to persist or even grow worse in later years (for example, Provence and Lipton, 1962; Yarrow, 1963; Dennis and Najaran, 1957)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER III

DISCUSSION

 

  1. A.    The Critical Period in First Language

Scientists and researchers debated the critical period hypothesis of language development for many years. Recently, they have gathered compelling evidence–including the evidence from feral, confined and isolated children–that, unless they are exposed to language in the early years of life, humans lose much of their innate ability to learn a language, and especially its grammatical system. In 1967, Eric Lenneberg proposed the idea of a critical period for language acquisition. This critical period hypothesis argues that the ability to learn a language is limited to the years between infancy and puberty. The critical period is thought to end at puberty because of maturational and neurological changes in the brain.

A critical period is a maturational time period during which some crucial experience will have its peak effect on development or learning, resulting in  normal behavior attuned to the particular environment to which the organism has been exposed.

The typical period of language development–that period of time in which a child is most able to learn to speak fluently is between infancy and puberty. Some researchers refer to this period as the “critical period” of language development, but it may be better to think of it as the “sensitive period.” It is the time during which the human brain is most attuned to learning the rhythms and rules of a language.

The critical period hypothesis states that the first few years of life is the crucial time in which an individual can acquire a first language if presented with adequate stimuli. If language input doesn’t occur until after this time, the individual will never achieve a full command of language—especially grammatical systems. The critical period and sensitive period hypothesis apply to children brought up under normal conditions, but also relate to feral children, the study of whom has shed light on these hypotheses. Even children who were saved from conditions of isolation after reaching puberty were able to learn the rudiments of language, though they almost never achieved a level of competence similar to those of children their own age.

The duration of the period also varies greatly in different accounts; in this chart will be present the wide range of normal development in language acquisition.

Age of Child

Typical Language Development

6 months

  • Vocalization with intonation
  • Response to his name
  • Responds to human voices without visual cues by turning his head and eyes
  • Responds appropriately to friendly and angry tones

12 months

  • Uses one of more words with meanings (this may be a fragment of a word)
  • Understands simple instruction, especially if vocal or physical cues are given
  • Practices inflection
  • Is aware of the social value of speech

18 months

  • Has vocabulary of approximately 5-20 words
  • Vocabulary made up chiefly of nouns
  • Some echolalia (repeating a word or phrase over and over)
  • Much jargon with emotional content
  • Is able to follow simple commands

24 months

  • Can name a number of objects common to his surroundings
  • Is able to use at least two preposition, usually chosen from the following : in, on, under
  • Combines words into a short sentence-largely noun-verb combination (mean) length of sentences is given as 1-2 words
  • Approximately 2/3 of what child says should be intelligible vocabulary of approximately 150-300 words
  • Rhythm and fluency often poor
  • Volume and pitch of voice not yet well-controlled
  • Can use two pronouns correctly: I, me, you, although me and I are often confused
  • My and mine are beginning to emerge
  • Etc.

36 months

  • Is using some plurals and past tense
  • Knows chief parts of body and should be able to indicate these if not name
  • Has in the neighbourhood of 900-1000 words
  • Etc

48 months

  • Knows names of familiar animals
  • Has most vowels and diphthongs and the consonants p, b, m, w, n, well established
  • Much repetition of words, phrases, phrases, syllables, and even sounds
  • Etc.

60 months

  • Can use many descriptive words spontaneously-both adjectives and adverbs
  • Should have all vowels and the consonants m, p, b, h, w, k, g, t, d, n, ng, y (yellow)
  • Should be able to define common objects in terms of use (hat, shoe, chair)
  • Should be able to repeat sentences as long as nine words.
  • Etc.

6 Years

  • In addition to the above consonants these should be mastered: f, v, sh, zh, th
  • Speech should be completely intelligible and socially useful
  • Should be able to tell one a rather connected story about picture, seeing relationships between object and happenings
  • Etc.

7 Years

  • Should have mastered the consonants s-z, r, voiceless th, ch, wh, and the soft g as in George
  • Should handle opposite analogies easily: girl-boy, man-woman, flies-swims, short-long
  • Should be able to tell time to quarter hour
  • Should be able to do simple reading and to write or print many words
  • Etc.

8 Years

  • All speech sounds, including consonant blends should be established
  • Can carry on conversation at rather adult level
  • Social amenities should be present in his speech in appropriate
  • Etc.

 

 

  1. B.     Study Case; The Critical Periods and Isolated Children (Genie) in First Language Acquisition

Genie was discovered at the age of 14 and had grown up tied to a chair since she was 20 months old. Her mother, who was blind, would not speak to her or hold her but would simply feed her quickly and punish her if Genie made a sound (Baker). When she was found, psychologists and linguists tried to teach Genie how to talk, and although she could eventually string a few words together, she never really became very good at it. It is believed that because she was never taught any type of language during her developmental years, she was too old to really learn at the age they started to teach her (Baker).

Although Genie now is adult, her language development is quite immature. She produces mostly nouns, some verbs, but view adjectives or adverbs. Her utterances usually consist of no more than three words. After intensive language training and psychotherapy, Genie has not been able to acquire normal language skills.

Genie was not exposed to language during the critical period. She was not spoken to; she did not learn how to form words and to combine those words into sentences. When she was released from the room at the age of 13, her brain had lost its ability to learn normal language. She suffered more than language deprivation during her capability; she also suffered social deprivation. The social deprivation probably played a role in her later language development.

So, if the children not get the normal critical period it can influence in their language development like in Genie’s case.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER IV

CONCLUSION

 

 

In general, a critical period is a limited time in which an event can occur, usually to result in some kind of transformation. In developmental psychology and developmental biology, a critical period is a phase in the life span during which an organism has heightened sensitivity to exogenous stimuli that are compulsory for the development of a particular skill.

The Critical Period Hypothesis states that the first few years of life constitute the time during which language develops readily and after which (sometime between age 5 and puberty) language acquisition is much more difficult and ultimately less successful. The critical period is thought to end at puberty because of maturational and neurological changes in the brain.

Normal children get language development in age since 6 months-12 years, but in isolated children especially Genie, get late language development.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

 

Chaer, Abdul. 2009.Psikolinguistik; Kajian Teoritik.Rineka Cipta.Jakarta

 

Chomsky, N. (1975). Reflections on language. New York: Pantheon Books.

 

 

Steinberg, Hiroshi Nigata, David P Aline. 2001. Psycholinguistic: Language, Mind and World Second Edition. Longman.England

 

Choice. Article Synopsis and Reaction for Feral Children: Genie, A Modern-Day Wild Child. Cited in Dec, 25th 2012

 

Feral Children. (2005). Feral children: Genie, a modern-day wild child. Retrieved December 25th 2012.  from http://www.feralchildren.com/en/showchild.php?ch=genie.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

  1. A.                Background

Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language acquisition usually refers to first-language acquisition, which studies infants’ acquisition of their native language. This is distinguished from second-language acquisition, which deals with the acquisition (in both children and adults) of additional languages.

The critical period for language acquisition is the hypothesis that language is acquired best in early childhood and is more difficult to learn at older ages. The idea has been around for a at least 100 years, but Wilder Penfield, a Montreal neurologist, was one of the first scientists to purpose that the superiority for language acquisition shown by young children is due to neuroplasticity (Penfield & Roberts, 1959). Later, Lenneberg (1967), in his revolutionary book. The Biological Foundations of Language, greatly elaborated this proposal by gathering a variety of evidence from studies of brain growth and clinical studies of cases of brain damage, mental retardation, and deafness to support the hypothesis that there are age constraints on language acquisition caused by brain maturation.

Most of the empirical evidence for critical periods in development comes from studies of the visual system in animals rather than from language studies with humans. When mammals are prevented from using their vision in early life, the result is a permanent inability to see. Similar effects have been documented in humans who are born with visual impairments, such as congenital cataracts, that remain uncorrected during childhood. Sacks (1993) describes one such a case, where a grown man was unable to develop functional sight after cataract surgery although he was technically able to see. He was not unable to recognize his dog without touching it, nor was he able to make his way from the front of his house to the back using only his eyes. Because his brain had not received the necessary visual input at just the right moments in development, it had never learned “to see.” This remained true even in adulthood because the critical period for the development of this man’s visual system had passed long ago.

Whether a critical period also guides language acquisition has been more difficult to ascertain. There are no animals models to study and all human babies born with normal situation are immersed in spoken language from the moment they are born. In contrast to the situation for babies who born normally with the situation in their families are radically like in Genie’s case, it makes children have problem in their language acquisition especially in first language.

 

  1. B.                 Identification of Problems

Based on background of the study, this paper will explain the following problems:

  1. What is the critical period in first language acquisition?
  2. What the differences critical period between normal children and isolated children (study case: Genie)?

 

  1. C.                Limitations of Problems

This paper focused on critical period in first language, it will be explain about the differences critical period between normal children and isolated children, study case in Genie.

 

  1. D.                Objectives

The objectives of this paper are:

  1. To know the critical period in first language acquisition
  2. To know the differences critical period between normal children and isolated children (study case: Genie)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER II

FRAME OF THEORIES

 

  1. A.    The Critical Period Hypothesis in First Language Acquisition

Critical Period is a span of time in one’s life within which one must acquire a first language. In general, a critical period is a limited time in which an event can occur, usually to result in some kind of transformation. In developmental psychology and developmental biology, a critical period is a phase in the life span during which an organism has heightened sensitivity to exogenous stimuli that are compulsory for the development of a particular skill. If the organism does not receive the appropriate stimulus during this “critical period”, it may be difficult, ultimately less successful, or even impossible, to develop some functions later in life. The general idea is that failure to learn a particular skill allows the cortical areas normally allocated for that function to fall into disuse; as a result these unused brain areas will eventually adapt to perform a different function and therefore will no longer be available to perform other functions. The concurrence of critical periods for the auditory, visual, and vestibular systems suggests that the time period may be universal for emergent sensory systems.

 According to Lenneberg, 1967, The Critical Period Hypothesis states that the first few years of life constitute the time during which language develops readily and after which (sometime between age 5 and puberty) language acquisition is much more difficult and ultimately less successful. The critical period is thought to end at puberty because of maturational and neurological changes in the brain. Ehrman and oxford (1955) stated, “Younger learners are more likely to attain fluency and native-like pronunciation…”(p. 68)

Penfield and Roberts (1959) and Lenneberg (1967) were the first to propose a critical period for first language acquisition. This hypothesis was based on evidence from (1) feral children and victims of child abuse who were reared without exposure to human language and thus were unable to fully acquire the ability to produce it; (2) deaf children who were unable to develop spoken language after puberty; (3) evidence that children with aphasia have a better chance at recovery than aphasiac adults. The critical hypothesis, Lenneberg (1967) states that the early-to-mid childhood (age 5 to puberty) constitutes the time during which language develops readily and after which language acquisition is much more difficult and ultimately less successful.

The Critical Period Hypothesis was developed further by Pinker (1994), who proposed that language acquisition is guaranteed during childhood, progressively jeopardized until puberty ends, and is improbable thereafter. According to Pinker, physiological changes in the brain are conceivable causes of the terminus of the critical period for language acquisition. Pinker further supported Lenneberg statement about critical period, he commented that “Maturation changes in the brain, such as the decline in metabolic rate and number of neurons during the early school-age years, and the bottoming out of the number of synapses and metabolic rate around puberty, are plausible causes” (p. 298).

Besides that, based on the analysis conducted by the innateness hypothesis of Lenneberg, 1967, and Chomsky, 1970, “all normal children acquire native language of origin will be” introduced “to the language or their mother don’t removed and excluded from their mothers’ life”.

 

B. The Theories of Language Acquisition

There are three theories of language acquisition:

  1. Imitation Theory

Children hear speech around them and copy it. When a child is raised in a English speaking environment they acquire English.  Although, have mistakes such as over-generalization “goed” and “bes” are predictable and consistent.

 

 

  1. Reinforcement Theory

The way in which adults coach children when using language by praise and by correcting the children.  Parents may sometimes correct the truth of the statement rather than the form. The children’s mistakes are often rule governed (by perhaps always adding the suffix -ed to form past tense).

  1. Active Construction of a Grammar Theory

Rules are hypothesized by the linguistic inputs recognized by children acquiring language. As children continuously receive language input their language is revised to more and more become a model of adult grammar. This accounts for the fact that children can create novel sentences unlike those heard from adults.

 

C. Isolated Children

An Isolated Child is a child who was raised with very little social contact. Often these children were locked up by their parents, in certain rooms or in closets. Once returned to a normal human life they show limited social skills, ability to learn language, and are often considered to be moderately retarded. They never reach a normal human state of life, and often die fairly young.

Isolated child is case of children who have been kept in confinement or isolation by their parents or others, and consequently were not exposed to language. But there are also a great number of children who have been cared for by loving parents, but who, because of a physical disability such as deafness and blindness, have nonetheless been isolated from language. Studying such cases might provide us with insight into certain psycholinguistics questions in much the someway as does the study of children who have grown up in the isolation.

According to David (1984) he said that “here, then, was a human organism which had missed nearly six years of socialization. Her condition shows how little her purely biological resources, when acting alone, could contribute to making her a complete person”. Golfarb (1945), for example, compared forty children who had been placed in foster home soon after birth with forty children who had spent the first two years of their lives in institutions before being transferred to foster homes. He found that the institutionalized children suffered a number of personality defects that persisted even after they had left the institution. They had lower IQ scores, seemed more aggressive and distractible, showed less initiative, and were emotionally cold. Many other studies had reported similar depressing effects on physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development, and have confirmed that such disabilities suffered in early childhood tend to persist or even grow worse in later years (for example, Provence and Lipton, 1962; Yarrow, 1963; Dennis and Najaran, 1957)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER III

DISCUSSION

 

  1. A.    The Critical Period in First Language

Scientists and researchers debated the critical period hypothesis of language development for many years. Recently, they have gathered compelling evidence–including the evidence from feral, confined and isolated children–that, unless they are exposed to language in the early years of life, humans lose much of their innate ability to learn a language, and especially its grammatical system. In 1967, Eric Lenneberg proposed the idea of a critical period for language acquisition. This critical period hypothesis argues that the ability to learn a language is limited to the years between infancy and puberty. The critical period is thought to end at puberty because of maturational and neurological changes in the brain.

A critical period is a maturational time period during which some crucial experience will have its peak effect on development or learning, resulting in  normal behavior attuned to the particular environment to which the organism has been exposed.

The typical period of language development–that period of time in which a child is most able to learn to speak fluently is between infancy and puberty. Some researchers refer to this period as the “critical period” of language development, but it may be better to think of it as the “sensitive period.” It is the time during which the human brain is most attuned to learning the rhythms and rules of a language.

The critical period hypothesis states that the first few years of life is the crucial time in which an individual can acquire a first language if presented with adequate stimuli. If language input doesn’t occur until after this time, the individual will never achieve a full command of language—especially grammatical systems. The critical period and sensitive period hypothesis apply to children brought up under normal conditions, but also relate to feral children, the study of whom has shed light on these hypotheses. Even children who were saved from conditions of isolation after reaching puberty were able to learn the rudiments of language, though they almost never achieved a level of competence similar to those of children their own age.

The duration of the period also varies greatly in different accounts; in this chart will be present the wide range of normal development in language acquisition.

Age of Child

Typical Language Development

6 months

  • Vocalization with intonation
  • Response to his name
  • Responds to human voices without visual cues by turning his head and eyes
  • Responds appropriately to friendly and angry tones

12 months

  • Uses one of more words with meanings (this may be a fragment of a word)
  • Understands simple instruction, especially if vocal or physical cues are given
  • Practices inflection
  • Is aware of the social value of speech

18 months

  • Has vocabulary of approximately 5-20 words
  • Vocabulary made up chiefly of nouns
  • Some echolalia (repeating a word or phrase over and over)
  • Much jargon with emotional content
  • Is able to follow simple commands

24 months

  • Can name a number of objects common to his surroundings
  • Is able to use at least two preposition, usually chosen from the following : in, on, under
  • Combines words into a short sentence-largely noun-verb combination (mean) length of sentences is given as 1-2 words
  • Approximately 2/3 of what child says should be intelligible vocabulary of approximately 150-300 words
  • Rhythm and fluency often poor
  • Volume and pitch of voice not yet well-controlled
  • Can use two pronouns correctly: I, me, you, although me and I are often confused
  • My and mine are beginning to emerge
  • Etc.

36 months

  • Is using some plurals and past tense
  • Knows chief parts of body and should be able to indicate these if not name
  • Has in the neighbourhood of 900-1000 words
  • Etc

48 months

  • Knows names of familiar animals
  • Has most vowels and diphthongs and the consonants p, b, m, w, n, well established
  • Much repetition of words, phrases, phrases, syllables, and even sounds
  • Etc.

60 months

  • Can use many descriptive words spontaneously-both adjectives and adverbs
  • Should have all vowels and the consonants m, p, b, h, w, k, g, t, d, n, ng, y (yellow)
  • Should be able to define common objects in terms of use (hat, shoe, chair)
  • Should be able to repeat sentences as long as nine words.
  • Etc.

6 Years

  • In addition to the above consonants these should be mastered: f, v, sh, zh, th
  • Speech should be completely intelligible and socially useful
  • Should be able to tell one a rather connected story about picture, seeing relationships between object and happenings
  • Etc.

7 Years

  • Should have mastered the consonants s-z, r, voiceless th, ch, wh, and the soft g as in George
  • Should handle opposite analogies easily: girl-boy, man-woman, flies-swims, short-long
  • Should be able to tell time to quarter hour
  • Should be able to do simple reading and to write or print many words
  • Etc.

8 Years

  • All speech sounds, including consonant blends should be established
  • Can carry on conversation at rather adult level
  • Social amenities should be present in his speech in appropriate
  • Etc.

 

 

  1. B.     Study Case; The Critical Periods and Isolated Children (Genie) in First Language Acquisition

Genie was discovered at the age of 14 and had grown up tied to a chair since she was 20 months old. Her mother, who was blind, would not speak to her or hold her but would simply feed her quickly and punish her if Genie made a sound (Baker). When she was found, psychologists and linguists tried to teach Genie how to talk, and although she could eventually string a few words together, she never really became very good at it. It is believed that because she was never taught any type of language during her developmental years, she was too old to really learn at the age they started to teach her (Baker).

Although Genie now is adult, her language development is quite immature. She produces mostly nouns, some verbs, but view adjectives or adverbs. Her utterances usually consist of no more than three words. After intensive language training and psychotherapy, Genie has not been able to acquire normal language skills.

Genie was not exposed to language during the critical period. She was not spoken to; she did not learn how to form words and to combine those words into sentences. When she was released from the room at the age of 13, her brain had lost its ability to learn normal language. She suffered more than language deprivation during her capability; she also suffered social deprivation. The social deprivation probably played a role in her later language development.

So, if the children not get the normal critical period it can influence in their language development like in Genie’s case.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER IV

CONCLUSION

 

 

In general, a critical period is a limited time in which an event can occur, usually to result in some kind of transformation. In developmental psychology and developmental biology, a critical period is a phase in the life span during which an organism has heightened sensitivity to exogenous stimuli that are compulsory for the development of a particular skill.

The Critical Period Hypothesis states that the first few years of life constitute the time during which language develops readily and after which (sometime between age 5 and puberty) language acquisition is much more difficult and ultimately less successful. The critical period is thought to end at puberty because of maturational and neurological changes in the brain.

Normal children get language development in age since 6 months-12 years, but in isolated children especially Genie, get late language development.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

 

Chaer, Abdul. 2009.Psikolinguistik; Kajian Teoritik.Rineka Cipta.Jakarta

 

Chomsky, N. (1975). Reflections on language. New York: Pantheon Books.

 

 

Steinberg, Hiroshi Nigata, David P Aline. 2001. Psycholinguistic: Language, Mind and World Second Edition. Longman.England

 

Choice. Article Synopsis and Reaction for Feral Children: Genie, A Modern-Day Wild Child. Cited in Dec, 25th 2012

 

Feral Children. (2005). Feral children: Genie, a modern-day wild child. Retrieved December 25th 2012.  from http://www.feralchildren.com/en/showchild.php?ch=genie.

 

 

 

 

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